Intelligence is a slippery thing to define. The following definition recently struck me:
That which allows one to maximize happiness over long term.
I like this definition because it is short (c.f. MDL, Occam’s Razor), it makes logical sense, and it carries a lot of meaning without going into details of how to be intelligent. It is logical to me because of the following argument: Suppose a person is allowed to life two versions of his life starting from some fixed point in his life. All events and circumstances in the two versions are the same except for actions taken by the person. Then he can be said to be more intelligent in that version of his life in which he achieves greater happiness over the rest of his life.
Intelligence is needed in order to understand what actions will make us happy, for how long, and whether there will be any effects of those actions on our future happiness. Making decisions to maximize cumulative happiness is certainly a non-trivial task. Sometimes one must put oneself through short-term adversity (e.g. graduate school at little on no stipend, or an athlete undergoing gruelling training for a race) to be able to do well later. Sometimes, one decides to undertake an action that provides short term happiness, but at the cost of long term happiness. It takes intelligence to learn to avoid such behaviour n the future.
Modern definitions of intelligence from the scientific and psychology community are incredibly long-winded [Wikipedia]
A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—”catching on,” “making sense” of things, or “figuring out” what to do.
Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. Although these individual differences can be substantial, they are never entirely consistent: a given person’s intellectual performance will vary on different occasions, in different domains, as judged by different criteria. Concepts of “intelligence” are attempts to clarify and organize this complex set of phenomena. Although considerable clarity has been achieved in some areas, no such conceptualization has yet answered all the important questions, and none commands universal assent. Indeed, when two dozen prominent theorists were recently asked to define intelligence, they gave two dozen, somewhat different, definitions.
The same Wikipedia page also lists various different definitions given by researchers. The long-windedness of these definitions is somewhat excusable as an attempt to be all-inclusive and general. But in the end, the notion of intelligence is a man-made model, invented to try and explain phenomena. I think a focus on happiness as the central phenomenon to be explained goes a long way in simplifying our understanding of intelligence.